To many Arab intellectuals this seemed to be the final, intolerable blow. But the collapse of the Soviet Union would prove to be yet another catastrophe from the point of view of Muslims who had looked to it for salvation from the United States. This hope in itself was particularly remarkable because the official atheism of the Soviet Union had long been thought to exclude the possibility of Muslim cooperation.
According to Abou el Fadl:. Many of them speak of another Islam, their personal, private faith. No argument here. A far more elaborate and relentlessly negative treatment of Islam is that of ibn Warraq. His strong resentment toward the religion of his childhood resonates with many humanist readers, myself included, whose path out of traditional bondage was mainly intellectual in nature.
This book and The Origins of the Koran , which followed in , are entry points into the slowly expanding literature highly critical of Islam, past and present, in general and in specific detail, with particular focus on contradictions in the Quran and the traditions surrounding the Prophet, violence in the history of Islamic interactions with other groups, and issues of the status of women and the relation of religion to the state.
This is required reading for all who may doubt that Islam even has a darker side. Twice during the past decade I have published in Humanism Today an organ of the North American Committee for Humanism and the Humanist Institute , my own optimistic assessments of chances for the future evolution of Islam in the direction of humanism.
These favorable estimates, while clearly contingent on events yet to unfold, are based on some sixty years of comparative study of the history of civilizations. I then went on to list a few of the hundreds of sources from which my optimism was derived. In the harsh, eerie glare of September 11, what I am saying here may be considered an update of my earlier remarks. It would be hard to make the case that Islam is intrinsically more cruel or violent than Judaism or Christianity.
The Arabic language, like other Semitic languages, has consonants and vowels, and the meanings of words are derived from both. This is a deliberate distortion of reality; States continue to imprison, torture and kill their citizens at a rate orders of magnitude greater than all the non-State terrorists combined. The crafting of new constitutions following the ouster of long-time rulers in Libya, Egypt, and Tunisia has led to a discussion about the role of Islamic law in a democracy. Women: polygamy. Conclusion A substantive result of this study is that the conflict we now identify as violent Muslim radicalism has its roots in the form of non-state actors such as religious leaders propagating non-violent and violent narratives based on sharia.
The Old Testament—the foundation of the Judeo-Christian tradition—echoes, after all, throughout the Quran and can easily match the Quran on a literal basis for violence and brutality. Jews, and later Christians, have never had any problem with ascribing violence to their religion when it served their purposes. The gradual liberalization of Judaism and Christianity included the metaphorical interpretation of such phrases, with the heavenly host referring to the stars and the angels. And the cruel punishments set forth in the Old Testament laws notably death by stoning for what the modern world might regard as civil wrongs or misdemeanors or no wrongs at all are all-of-a-piece with the severe hudud punishments called for by Wahhabi jurists in Saudi Arabia and the Taliban in Afghanistan.
The brutality of the Christians in the Crusades was unmatched. John L. Esposito writes in Islam: The Straight Path:. It should be clear from the passages cited from the works of Pervez Hoodbhoy, Salman Rushdie, and ibn Warraq that these humanist authors hope and believe there is a possibility that Islam can evolve throughout much of the world toward more democratic, pluralistic societies. And I totally share their goals of promoting rationalism, secularism, democracy, and human rights within Islamic society.
But what is missing is a realistic plan to accomplish this. To ask for all this at once is to ask for too much, too soon.
We will do even better if we work hard to eradicate political and economic inequalities—to empower the powerless, feed the hungry, clothe the naked, house the homeless, educate the young, and heal the sick. This is a message all Muslims will understand. David Schafer is a consulting editor for the Humanist and a recently retired physiologist who now devotes most of his time to humanist research, writing, and teaching.
Palestinian writer Edward Said [of Christian background, teaching at Columbia University], among others, has insistently pointed out that Islam holds very different meaning for different people. Within my own family, hugely different kinds of Islam are practiced. The religion is as heterogeneous as those who believe and follow it. Their attention should be directed to his criticism of the West: The United States, too, must confront bitter truths. The messages of George W.
Bush and Tony Blair fall flat while those of bin Laden, whether he lives or dies, resonate strongly across the Muslim world. Americans will also have to accept that their triumphalism and disdain for international law are creating enemies everywhere, not just among Muslims. Therefore they must become less arrogant and more like other peoples of this world.
Change had become unavoidable, and the writers. Regarding to , Hourani observes: Two strands of thought. For most of. According to Abou el Fadl: Classical Muslim jurists were uncompromisingly harsh toward rebels who used what the jurists described as stealth attacks and, as a result, spread terror. Muslim jurists considered terrorist attacks against unsuspecting and defenseless victims as heinous and immoral crimes, and treated the perpetrators as the worst type of criminals.
Although these terrorist groups adopt various theological justifications for their behavior, their ideologies, symbolism, language and organizational structure reflect the influence of the anti-colonial struggle of the developing world. For instance, the groups often use expressions. In short, modern Muslim terrorism is part of the historical legacy of colonialism and not the legacy of Islamic law.
According to the Islamic juristic tradition, terrorists would have no quarter. From the beginning Islam has assimilated extra-Islamic influences and accommodated to local conditions. If Christianity and Judaism, both inherently conservative, can evolve by gradual stages into Humanism I see no reason why Islam cannot.
Some states and movements that are perceived or claimed to be islamic fundamentalists have been criticized for their human rights record by international organizations. The acceptance of international law on human rights has been somewhat limited even in Muslim countries that are not seen as fundamentalist.
Ann Elizabeth Mayer writes that states with a predominantly Muslim population, even when they adopt laws along European lines, are influenced by Islamic rules and precepts of sharia , which cause conflict with international law on human rights. According to Mayer, features found in conflict include severe deficiencies in criminal procedure, harsh criminal penalties causing great suffering, discrimination against women and non-Muslims, and prohibition against abandoning the Islamic religion.
The Cairo declaration lacks provisions for democratic principles, protection for religious freedom, freedom of association and freedom of the press, as well as equality in rights and equal protection under the law. Further it stipulates that "all the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic shari'a ". The Cairo declaration followed years of limited acceptance of the Universal declaration by predominantly Muslim states. As an example, in , Iran's UN representative, Said Raja'i Khorasani, said the following amid allegations of human rights violations, "[Iran] recognized no authority Conventions, declarations and resolutions or decisions of international organizations, which were contrary to Islam, had no validity in the Islamic Republic of Iran The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which represented secular understanding of the Judaeo-Christian tradition, could not be implemented by Muslims and did not accord with the system of values recognized by the Islamic Republic of Iran; this country would therefore not hesitate to violate its provisions.
See human rights in Iran , human rights in Saudi Arabia , and Taliban treatment of women for specific examples. Guiora noted that this is equivalent to the number of Australians who perceived American Foreign Policy as a threat, he further noted that not just Muslim countries have an unfavourable opinion of the United States but a large number of western countries such as: France, Germany, Great Britain and Spain and concluded that Australia was not an outlier on this regard.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Muslims who seek to return to the fundamentals of the Islamic religion. Key texts. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Iqbal s. Principles of State and Government Asad Ma'alim fi al-Tariq "Milestones" Qutb Heads of state. Key ideologues.
Criticism of Islamism. Related topics. Sab'u Masajid , Saudi Arabia. Ideology and influences. Founders and key figures. Notable universities. Related ideologies. Associated organizations. Further information: Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Main article: Caucasus Emirate. Main article: Al-Shabaab militant group. Main article: Boko Haram. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
kushikatsu-oasis.com/wp-content Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Ansar Dine. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. February Main article: Opinion polling and analysis about Islamic fundamentalism. Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism. Scarecrow Press.