Another difference was that novels began to deal with more difficult subjects, including current political and social issues, that were being discussed in newspapers and magazines. The idea of social responsibility became a key subject, whether of the citizen, or of the artist, with the theoretical debate concentrating on questions around the moral soundness of the modern novel. Major British writers such as Charles Dickens  and Thomas Hardy  were influenced by the romance genre tradition of the novel, which had been revitalized during the Romantic period.
Many 19th-century authors dealt with significant social matters. In the United States slavery and racism became topics of far broader public debate thanks to Harriet Beecher Stowe 's Uncle Tom's Cabin , which dramatizes topics that had previously been discussed mainly in the abstract.
Charles Dickens ' novels led his readers into contemporary workhouses , and provided first-hand accounts of child labor. Similarly the treatment of crime is very different in Fyodor Dostoyevsky 's Crime and Punishment , where the point of view is that of a criminal. Women authors had dominated fiction from the s into the early 18th century, but few before George Eliot so openly questioned the role, education, and status of women in society, as she did. As the novel became a platform of modern debate, national literatures were developed that link the present with the past in the form of the historical novel.
Alessandro Manzoni 's I Promessi Sposi did this for Italy, while novelists in Russia and the surrounding Slavonic countries, as well as Scandinavia , did likewise. Along with this new appreciation of history, the future also became a topic for fiction. This had been done earlier in works like Samuel Madden 's Memoirs of the Twentieth Century and Mary Shelley 's The Last Man , a work whose plot culminated in the catastrophic last days of a mankind extinguished by the plague. Edward Bellamy 's Looking Backward and H.
Wells 's The Time Machine were concerned with technological and biological developments. Industrialization , Darwin 's theory of evolution and Marx's theory of class divisions shaped these works and turned historical processes into a subject of wide debate. James Joyce 's Ulysses had a major influence on modern novelists, in the way that it replaced the 18th- and 19th-century narrator with a text that attempted to record inner thoughts, or a " stream of consciousness ".
This term was first used by William James in and, along with the related term interior monologue , is used by modernists like Dorothy Richardson , Marcel Proust , Virginia Woolf , and William Faulkner.
On the other hand, Robert Coover is an example of those authors who, in the s, fragmented their stories and challenged time and sequentiality as fundamental structural concepts. The 20th century novels deals with a wide range of subject matter. The Jazz Age is explored by American F. The rise of totalitarian states is the subject of British writer George Orwell. Novelist have also been interested in the subject of racial and gender identity in recent decades. Louis has described Chuck Palahniuk 's Fight Club as "a closeted feminist critique". Furthermore, the major political and military confrontations of the 20th and 21st centuries have also influenced novelists.
The subsequent Cold War influenced popular spy novels. Another major 20th-century social events, the so-called sexual revolution is reflected in the modern novel.
Lawrence 's Lady Chatterley's Lover had to be published in Italy in ; British censorship lifted its ban as late as In the second half of the 20th century, Postmodern authors subverted serious debate with playfulness, claiming that art could never be original, that it always plays with existing materials. A postmodernist re-reads popular literature as an essential cultural production.
See also: Thriller , Westerns and Speculative fiction. While the reader of so-called serious literature will follow public discussions of novels, popular fiction production employs more direct and short-term marketing strategies by openly declarating of the work's genre. Popular novels are based entirely on the expectations for the particular genre, and this includes the creation of a series of novels with an identifiable brand name. Popular literature holds a larger market share. Genre literature might be seen as the successor of the early modern chapbook.
Both fields share a focus on readers who are in search of accessible reading satisfaction.
The modern adventure novel goes back to Daniel Defoe 's Robinson Crusoe and its immediate successors. Modern pornography has no precedent in the chapbook market but originates in libertine and hedonistic belles lettres, of works like John Cleland 's Fanny Hill and similar eighteenth century novels. Ian Fleming 's James Bond is a descendant of the anonymous yet extremely sophisticated and stylish narrator who mixed his love affairs with his political missions in La Guerre d'Espagne Marion Zimmer Bradley 's The Mists of Avalon is influenced by Tolkien , as well as Arthurian literature , including its nineteenth century successors.
Modern horror fiction also has no precedent on the market of chapbooks but goes back to the elitist market of early nineteenth century Romantic literature. Modern popular science fiction has an even shorter history, from the s. The authors of popular fiction tend to advertise that they have exploited a controversial topic and this is a major difference between them and so-called elitist literature. Dan Brown , for example, discusses, on his website, the question whether his Da Vinci Code is an anti-Christian novel.
However, the boundaries between popular and serious literature have blurred in recent years, with postmodernism and poststructuralism , as well as by adaptation of popular literary classics by the film and television industries.
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Crime became a major subject of 20th and 21st century genre novelists and crime fiction reflects the realities of modern industrialized societies. Crime is both a personal and public subject: criminals each have their personal motivations; detectives, see their moral codes challenged. Patricia Highsmith 's thrillers became a medium of new psychological explorations.
Paul Auster 's New York Trilogy — is an example of experimental postmodernist literature based on this genre. Fantasy is another major area of commercial fiction, and a major example is J. Tolkien in fact revived the tradition of European epic literature in the tradition of Beowulf , the North Germanic Edda and the Arthurian Cycles.
Science fiction , is another important type of genre fiction and it has developed in a variety of ways, ranging from the early, technological adventure Jules Verne had made fashionable in the s, to Aldous Huxley 's Brave New World about Western consumerism and technology. Clarke produced modern classics which focus on the interaction between humans and machines. The surreal novels of Philip K Dick such as The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch explore the nature of reality, reflecting the widespread recreational experimentation with drugs and cold-war paranoia of the 60's and 70's.
Writers such as Ursula le Guin and Margaret Atwood explore feminist and broader social issues in their works. William Gibson , author of the cult classic Neuromancer , is one of a new wave of authors who explore post-apocalyptic fantasies and virtual reality. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Narrative text, normally of a substantial length and in the form of prose describing a fictional and sequential story.
For other uses, see Novel disambiguation. Not to be confused with Novell. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section needs additional citations for verification. See also: Ancient Greek novel and Byzantine novel. Main article: Chivalric romance.
Main article: Novella. Main article: Chapbook. Main articles: Heroic romances and 17th-century French literature.
See also: Picaresque novel. Main article: Augustan prose. Main article: Philosophical fiction. Main article: Sentimental novel.
Main article: Romanticism. See also: Newgate novel. Main articles: French literature of the 19th century and Victorian literature. See also: Sensation novel.